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Vegetation Types of the Deing Mountains and The...
22,16 € *
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The pressure from population growth in Indonesia’s Java Island has resulted in grave deforestation and forest degradation, leaving only 8.2 percent of forest cover remaining in 2006-2007. Population pressure continued to shrink Java’s forest cover through land conversion into settlement areas and agricultural fields, leaving small, isolated forest patches situated on mountain tops, like the ones found in the Dieng Mountains. Located in Central Java Province, Indonesia, the Dieng Mountains ecosystem has an important role in providing a wide range of goods and services, especially in supplying freshwater to its adjacent areas and maintaining biodiversity. However, the montane forests in the Dieng Mountains suffer from degradation caused by population pressure. Poor farming practices have resulted in the occurrence of pesticide pollution, a high level of erosion, soil sedimentation in lakes and reservoirs, landslides, and mud floods. Forest fires, illegal logging, forest looting, followed by land encroachment and shifting cultivation, have replaced the mature montane forests with young secondary vegetation. Regrowth forests have become the major vegetation type surrounding the Dieng Plateau, and with current farming practices, the trend of their formation indicates that they will persist into the future.So far, little has been done to deal with regrowth forests in the Dieng Mountains, and their value in terms of ecosystem functioning and biodiversity preservation has been insufficiently studied. Since the Dieng montane forests are known to harbor many endemic and rare wildlife species, it is important to understand how wildlife species in this area cope with habitat change. This research is an attempt to examine the impact of land use change resulting from humaninduced disturbances to the local flora and fauna, specifically to bird and mammal communities. The results of this research will provide an overview of the present condition of the Dieng Mountains ecosystem and help to fill in the information gaps left by previous studies. This research will provide policymakers with knowledge of the current state of the Dieng Mountains, allowing them to develop an effective program with reasonable goals and take appropriate actions in their effort to improve the ecological conditions of the Dieng Mountains.Vegetation data were collected in habitats that represent various ages of second-growth vegetation, namely woodland, shrubland, and grassland. A stratified systematic sampling with a random start was used to collect data on various growthforms of plant species. Vegetation parameters (i.e. species density, dominance, diameter class distribution) were then calculated. Plant species richness and diversity, and stands similarity were analyzed using SPADE. The bird census was carried out in the same locations chosen for vegetation surveys using the point transect distance method, with additional data collections in agricultural land. The results were then analyzed using the programs DISTANCE 6.0 release 2 for estimating the bird densities, and SPADE for estimating bird species richness and diversity. Surveys of mammal signs were also carried out in the same locations chosen for vegetation surveys and bird censuses by using a strip transect of 2-m width, crisscrossing the habitats in a random direction. Mammal species richness and the habitat preference of each species were then analyzed. In addition, interviews with local people were also conducted to gather supplementary information regarding the mammalian community in the Dieng Mountains.Our results show that the development of the secondary vegetation of the Dieng Mountains was highly influenced by its land use history and reforestation programs run by the local government. The vegetation structure of woodland and shrubland of the Dieng Mountains were similar, characterized with the typical simple structure normally found in a tropical secondary forest, an open canopy, and dense undergrowth. Few trees populated the grassland, no sign of tree invasion was found in this habitat, despite its close proximity to natural forest patches. The relatively low tree regenerations in all the habitats may be attributed to harsh environmental conditions caused by the high altitudinal location and the impact of forest clearings in the past, as well as competition with herbs. The effect of human activities in those habitats may also be an important factor slowing down the vegetation recovery. The impact of reforestations in shaping the floristic composition of the secondary vegetation was seen in the domination of tree species planted during the course of the program: the non-native species Acacia decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens, and Indonesian mountain species Schima wallichii. Pioneer shrub species Melastoma affine and grass Imperata cylindrica and Isachne globosa, as well as ruderal species Eupatorium odoratum, Eupatorium riparium, Buddleja asiatica, and Rubus rosaefolius dominated the undergrowth vegetation. Specifically in grassland, the small fern Gleichenia dichotoma’s domination seemed to suppress the growth of coexisting grass species, leading to the domination of a herb species, Conyza javanica, over pioneer grass species. Native Indonesian tree species were discovered as natural regrowth in a relatively small number. Compared with similar studies in other secondary forests, the richness of plant species found in the Dieng Mountains was considerably lower, especially that of woody plants. The contribution of the shrub and herb categories to more than 80 percent of the total species richness indicates the scarcity of tree species in our research area. In general, plant species richness and diversity were found highest in shrubland. The lowest species richness was found in woodland, while the lowest plant species diversity was recorded in grassland. These results may be related to the level of disturbance in each habitat, which shrubland experienced at an intermediate level. The similarity of plant species composition among habitats in each category was very high. This suggests that woodland and shrubland were still in a comparable stage of succession, despite the age difference between both habitats, while grassland may not succeed in developing into a forest. Considering the trend of population expansion in the Dieng Mountains, the fate of the secondary vegetation in this area may be determined by the level of future interference by humans.In various habitats in the Dieng Mountains, birds were found in relatively low densities. Based on previous studies by other authors, the occurrence of birds in low densities is common in a tropical landscape in which farmland and secondary vegetation are mixed into mosaics. The woodland of the Dieng Mountains, which had the most complex vegetation structure compared with the other habitat types, bore the highest bird density and species diversity. As bird assemblages are influenced by their surrounding habitat types, the bird populations in woodland may have been positively affected by woodland’s proximity to the patches of remnant forests on the mountain tops. With a similar, yet less complex vegetation structure and composition than woodland, shrubland had an intermediate level of bird density and species diversity. Despite its lack of mosaic heterogeneity and the presence of only a small number of trees between plots, agricultural land placed second in bird density. Possible causes for this include the proximity of agricultural land to urban areas and its adjacency to shrubland, which provided woody edge habitat, these factors are known to have positive effects on bird abundance and diversity. Grassland had the lowest species richness, species diversity, and bird density. The overall bird species diversity in our study area was low compared with the number of bird species listed in a previous study that also took place in the Dieng Mountains in 2001. However, the bird community was highly heterogeneous, making it likely that the actual species richness was considerably higher than the observed one. Most of the bird species encountered have a low to medium dependency on forest and a broad range of habitat suitability, only six forest-dependent species were recorded. Our results suggest that in its current state, the Dieng Mountains ecosystem can still meet the needs of various bird species populations. This is mainly because of the presence of secondary vegetation, which functions as a substitute habitat for forest-dependent species. However, the persistence of this condition will depend mainly on future agricultural expansion. An expanding agricultural landscape will eventually reduce the abundance and diversity of birds in the Dieng Mountains. Allowing the secondary vegetation to develop into a climax community will increase avian abundance and species diversity. Agroforestry, not yet widely practiced in the study area, also has the potential to have similar positive effects on the avifauna. Nevertheless, the condition of the Dieng Mountains ecosystem still needs to be improved to assure its suitability as a habitat for its native avifauna.Thirteen small to medium-sized mammal species were recorded in our study area through direct surveys and interviews. Two species, the Javan langur Trachypithecus auratus and Javan leopard Panthera pardus melas, were categorized as vulnerable and critically endangered, respectively, under the IUCN Red List. Our results suggest that the second-growth vegetation of the Dieng Mountains still provided a suitable habitat for the mammalian community, with woodland and shrubland each supporting much higher species richness than grassland. The species richness observed in agricultural land was almost as high as that of woodland and shrubland, implying that agricultural land with ist cultivated crops provided food and habitat for most mammal species in the Dieng Mountains. The majority of species listed were habitat generalists and capable of adapting to disturbed environments, except for two primate species, the long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis and Javan langur, whose habitat was confined only to woodland. The results of habitat preference analyses of mammal species recorded directly in the field were mostly inconclusive, owing to the lack of sufficient data. The most meaningful result was with the wild boar Sus scrofa, which showed a significant preference towards woodland and grassland, while avoiding shrubland for foraging. With their function as seed dispersers, the mammalian community’s members play important roles in the Dieng Mountains forest recovery, and therefore we expect this study to serve as a basis for establishing an effective conservation plan towards the improvement of the Dieng Mountains ecosystem.Considering the trend of human population expansion and land use patterns in the Dieng Mountains, the fate of forests and wildlife in this area may mostly be determined by the level of future interference by humans. At best, a mutual relationship can develop between the forest and humans utilizing it, which would give rise to sustainable forest and landscape management. Further research is needed to study the consequences of agricultural practices in the Dieng Mountains, including the effects of pesticides and fertilizers on wildlife populations.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Healing Bird - Perfume Gel (3 Types)
11,40 € *
zzgl. 16,92 € Versand

Brand from South Korea: Healing Bird. 3 types of perfume gel with different scent: 1. Lilac & Hyacinth: a musky floral scent 2. Pear & Saffron: a fruity floral scent 3. Cherry Blossom & Peach: a fruity floral series scent A long-lasting perfume gel with highly-concentrated premium perfume oil that does not have any hint of alcohol. Korea's first gel-type that can be carried around without concern about leaking. Enjoy the delicate glow in silky soft texture without any sticky sensation. How to use: Dab a tiny amount to the desired spot and rub it.

Anbieter: YesStyle
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Habitat use by declining woodland birds to info...
97,60 € *
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The aim of this book is to help bridge the gap between ecological studies intended to address species decline in woodland birds, and the practical conversion into revegetation works. Common criticism from the revegetation community is that ecological studies often provide rhetoric but no practical guidance. Revegetation to date has typically not produced useful habitat for many declining bird species. This study shows remnant woodlands naturally consist of a montage of habitat patches that each contain specific floristic structure. This study then shows how different bird species interact with the different patch types, and demonstrates how different declining bird species are able to co-inhabit at the scale this habitat heterogeneity was measured. The suggested revegetation template from this study is designed to produce quality habitat for an array of co-inhabiting declining woodland bird species.

Anbieter: Dodax AT
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Healing Bird - Ultra Protein Hair Oil - 2 Types
21,12 € *
zzgl. 16,92 € Versand

Brand from South Korea: Healing Bird. Benefits: A nourishing and protecting oil treatment that blended with plant-based oils, intensely protecting and repairing damaged hair. The formula penetrates the hair cuticle to deliver beautiful shine while leaving the hair silky-soft. Features a hint of cherry blossom and peach scents to uplift your mood. Hair Oil: The lightweight formula contains moisturizing almond oil and other nourishing plant oils, promoting a healthy-looking glow. Suitable for all hair types. Hair Oil Rich: The highly-nourishing formula blends with argan oil and other plant oils, deeply replenishing the hair fiber for a super-smooth finish. Specially formulated for extreme-damaged hair. How to use: Work a few drops through wet hair and air dry.

Anbieter: YesStyle
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Healing Bird - Perfume Body Mist 50ml (5 Types)
9,74 € *
zzgl. 16,92 € Versand

Brand from South Korea: Healing Bird. 5 types of body mist with different scent: 1. Rose & Cedarwood: gives a romantic feeling with musky scent. 2. Ylangylang & Green Tea: gives a relaxing feeling with green tea scent. 3. Grapefruit & Wild Mango: gives a refreshing feeling with sweet fruity scent. 4. Cherry Blossom & Peach: gives a lovely feeling with cherry blossom scent. 5. Freesia & Green Bouquet: gives a energizing feeling with fresh floral scent. A portable refreshing and non-sticky full body mist with natural and subtle scent that lasts all day. Contains botanic peptides Aqualicia to maintain moisture after cleansing. Contains natural ceramides that strengthen the hair and scalp. How to use: Apply lightly on the body and hair after shower, or apply when the skin is dry.

Anbieter: YesStyle
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Healing Bird - Gardeners Perfume Hand Cream 30m...
5,22 € *
zzgl. 16,92 € Versand

Brand from South Korea: Healing Bird. 5 types of real perfume infused handcreams infused with different scent: 1. Freesia & Green Bouquet: a green floral scent 2. Cherry Blossom & Peach: a lovely fruity floral scent 3. Rose & Cedarwood: a romantic musky scent 4. Grapefruit & Wild Mango: a fresh and sweet fruity floral scent 5. Ylangylang & Green Tea: a relaxing floral scent Contains acacia seed peptide Aqualicia to offer natural yet powerful hydration for the skin. Contains 100% natural botanic ceramide to strengthen skin barrier and deliver moisture into skin. A fast-absorbing hand cream that is non-sticky and non-greasy. How to use: Apply a moderate amount on hands when the skin is dry.

Anbieter: YesStyle
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Healing Bird - Gardeners Perfume Hand & Nail Cr...
4,83 € *
zzgl. 16,92 € Versand

Brand from South Korea: Healing Bird. 5 types of hand cream with different scent: 1. Peony & Silk Fleur: a musky scent 2. Chamomile & Lemon: a relaxing floral and fruity scent 3. Cotton & Sky Bloom: a soft cotton floral scent 4. Honey & Vanilla: a sweet vanilla scent 5. Berry & Star Fruit: a sweet berry scent Care for hand and nail with refreshing and sticky-free texture. Contains more than 93% of Shea Butter and powerfully-hydrating ingredients to provide immediate moisture deep into the skin. Richly-nourish the cuticles with high-absorption cream containing natural butter, plant-based oil and wax ingredients. Safe for sensitive skin with non-irritation and mild formula. How to use: Apply a moderate amount on hands when the skin is dry.

Anbieter: YesStyle
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Gun dog
35,00 € *
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Gun dogs, also gundogs or bird dogs, are types of dogs developed to assist hunters in finding and retrieving game, usually birds. Gun dogs are divided into three primary types: Retrievers, flushing dogs, and pointing breeds. Some kennel clubs define a Gundog Group for gundogs, while other kennel clubs include them in the Sporting Group. The three most popular types are: Spaniel, Golden Retriever and Labrador.

Anbieter: Dodax AT
Stand: 27.01.2020
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Gun dog
34,00 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Gun dogs, also gundogs or bird dogs, are types of dogs developed to assist hunters in finding and retrieving game, usually birds. Gun dogs are divided into three primary types: Retrievers, flushing dogs, and pointing breeds. Some kennel clubs define a Gundog Group for gundogs, while other kennel clubs include them in the Sporting Group. The three most popular types are: Spaniel, Golden Retriever and Labrador.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 27.01.2020
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